Some letters that represent consonants in the Semitic sense sounded like vowels to the Greeks. Mesopotamia writing alphabets Hurrians in northern Mesopotamia and around the upper stretches of the Euphrates adopted Old Akkadian cuneiform around bce and passed it on to the Indo-European Hittiteswho had invaded central Asia Minor at about that time.
The sign inventory was reduced from some 1, signs to some signs, and writing became increasingly phonological. It was the pen, with its preference for curves, that eliminated the angular forms; it was the papyrus, and still more the parchment or vellum, and, in modern times, paper, that made these curves possible.
These men were from Thessalonicaand they traveled to the southern Slavic regions to spread Christianity. It was particularly suitable for writing on stone or metal, for painting or carving inscriptions on the walls of mosques, and for lettering on coins.
However, there is now a better understanding of the principles behind the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names found in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions, literary productions and legal documents.
Since the Sumerian language has only been widely known and studied by scholars for approximately a century, changes in the accepted reading of Sumerian names have occurred from time to time.
Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus hence the term cuneiformat first only for logogramsbut by the 29th century BC also for phonetic elements.
Mesopotamia[ edit ] While neolithic writing is a current research topic, conventional history assumes that the writing process first evolved from economic necessity in the ancient Near East.
About that time, Mesopotamian cuneiform became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. In spite of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is as yet undeciphered.
A year later, an American archaeologist compared the Linear B tablet with the Greek script and managed to translate it. This early style lacked the characteristic wedge shape of the strokes. This is understandable, because almost only among the Persians was cuneiform used primarily for monumental writing, and the remains such as rock carvings were in many cases readily accessible.
The Ionic alphabet was the most important of the eastern variety, which also included the Greek alphabets of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands, of the Cyclades and Attica, of Sicyon and Argos, and of Megara, Corinth, and the Ionian colonies of Magna Graecia.
They also kept the phonetic values but extended them far beyond the original Sumerian inventory of simple types open or closed syllables like ba or ab. Both the Latin writing system and Christianity survived the empire that gave birth to them.
When the words had similar meaning but very different sounds they were written with the same symbol. By the early 21st century some 30, tablets or fragments of tablets in the Hittite language had been recovered through archaeological excavations.
By about 2, BC some of the Sumerian glyphs were being used to represent sounds using the rebus principle.
It not only provides vowel sounds but also distinguishes different consonants; diacritical points are also used as endings in the inflection of nouns and the moods of verbs. The modern forms of this alphabet have fewer letters. The biblical manuscripts, except for some fragments written on papyrusbelong to a much later date.
The political hegemony then passed decisively to the Akkadians, and King Hammurabi of Babylon died bce unified all of southern Mesopotamia.
Later a system of determinatives, which gave you a hint at the category a word belonged to, and of phonetic components, which indicated how to pronounce a word, developed, and helped disambiguate the meanings of glyphs.
The development was gradual and purely external i. Cretan and Greek scripts[ edit ] Further information: In northwestern India several other scripts are employed.
In everyday life the cursive script—i. A few permanent additions or, rather, differentiations from existing letters occurred during the Middle Ages, when the signs for u and v, and i and j, previously written interchangeably for either the vowel or the consonant sound, became conventionalized as u and i for vowels and v and j for consonants.
About 60 inscriptions from Norway date from the 5th to the 8th century, slightly later than the continental ones. Linear Elamite is a writing system attested in a few monumental inscriptions in Iran.
Arabic alphabet The Arabic script descended from the Aramaic through the Nabataean and the neo-Sinaitic alphabets. Their quipu system of recording information—based on knots tied along one or many linked cords—was apparently used for inventory and accountancy purposes and could not encode textual information.Jan 27, · Ancient Civilizations Writing Systems.
The earliest known writing system was cuneiform in Mesopotamia, which dates back to 3, BC. with a symbol for each sound produced. Alphabets spread widely and are now the writing system used by almost all of the world’s languages/5(9). Writing Over five thousand years ago, people living in Mesopotamia developed a form of writing to record and communicate different types of information.
Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. BCE. It is considered the most significant among the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing of.
Details of the Sumerian cuneiform script, the world's oldest writing system, which was used to write Sumerian, a semitic language spoken in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq and Syria) until about AD. Home News Alphabets Phrases Search.
The Samaritan alphabet was derived from the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet. According to the Bible, the Samaritans came originally from Mesopotamia, then moved to Palestine at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC and adopted the Jewish religion and culture.
The. Major alphabets of the world Hebrew alphabet. from the town of Kūfah in Mesopotamia, seat of a famous Muslim academy, Like the Semitic and the early Greek alphabets, Etruscan writing nearly always reads from right to left, though a few inscriptions are in boustrophedon style.Download